- When being assessed medically, patients with confirmed or suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection should wear a facemask.
- When caring for patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, healthcare workers should use Standard and Transmission-based Precautions.
Importance of PPE
Personal protective equipment, or "PPE," is clothing used to reduce exposure to dangers that cause serious industrial injuries and illnesses. It exists to protect workers' well-being and is critical in terms of best practice and risk mitigation. It is worn to reduce workers' exposure to workplace dangers that cause serious injuries and, in some cases, long-term diseases.
Before putting on a piece of equipment, it should be inspected to ensure that it is sanitary and in good operating order. It's preferable to evoke a sense of caution if any damage or defect is observed.
For work safety, workers must be trained in the following areas:
- When PPE is required
- What protective equipment is required?
- How to correctly don, doff, adjust, and wear personal protective equipment (PPE).
- The PPE's limitations
- And correct PPE care, maintenance, useful life, and disposal.
Importance of PPE Kits for avoiding Covid-19 virus
As we all know, the coronavirus transmits mostly by respiratory droplets produced when people cough, sneeze, or exhale. It is also spread through touching, direct touch, and contact with contaminated surfaces or items, and then touching their own mouth, nose, or potentially their eyes. People who have close contact with a suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patient or who care for such patients are most at risk of infection. As a result, personal protective equipment (PPE) is essential, particularly for healthcare personnel and frontline workers, to protect them from the infection. It breaks the virus's chain, preventing it from spreading further.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Components
PPE includes a face shield, goggles, gloves, a mask, coveralls or gowns (with or without aprons), a shoe cover, and a head cover.
- Face shield and goggles. The eyes, nose, and mouth are the most vulnerable organs because droplets produced by a person's cough or sneeze reach the other person through them. The use of face shields or goggles to protect the eyes, nose, and mouth is an important aspect of standard and contact precautions.
- Masks. Coronavirus mostly affects a person's upper and lower respiratory systems. As a result, protecting the airway from viruses generated by droplets/aerosols helps to prevent human infection. Masks are essential for everyone to protect themselves as well as the other person. Depending on your career and work, masks can come in a variety of styles. Disposable triple-layered medical masks keep the wearer from being infected. Then there are N-95 masks, which must be worn by persons who provide critical services and are at a higher risk of infection.
- Gloves. When a person comes into contact with an object or surface that has been contaminated by a COVID-19 infected individual, he or she is likely to touch their own eyes, nose, or mouth with the same hand. As a result, persons at increased risk must wear gloves to avoid infection. Nitrile gloves are preferred over latex gloves because they are chemically resistant, including disinfectants such as chlorine.
- Coverall/Gowns. Gowns are primarily used to protect healthcare personnel who are constantly at risk of becoming sick. It is possible to eliminate or reduce contact and droplet exposure by wearing suitable protective clothes, so protecting healthcare workers working in close vicinity (within 1 metre) to suspected or confirmed COVID-19 cases or their secretions.
- Shoe covers and head covers. To reduce the danger of viral transmission, health professionals wear shoe covers and headcovers. They provide as an additional layer of defence against COVID-19. It is important to protect yourself against risk in high-risk areas, especially hospitals, by any means available.
How to Put On (Don) Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for healthcare providers?
It is possible to use more than one donning method. It is vital to receive training and practise using your healthcare facility's method. One example of wearing PPE kit parts is shown below.
- Determine and collect the necessary personal protective equipment (PPE). Ensure that the gown size is right (based on training).
- Use hand sanitizer to do hand hygiene.
- Dress in an isolation gown. Tie all of the gown's ties. Other healthcare personnel may be required to assist.
- Put on an NIOSH-approved N95 filtering facepiece respirator or a higher level respirator (use a facemask if a respirator is not available). If the respirator has a nosepiece, it should be kept in place with both hands and should not be bent or tented. One hand should not be used to pinch the nosepiece. Respirator or facemask should be worn under the chin. Your lips and nose should be protected. Wearing a respirator or facemask under your chin or storing it in your scrubs pocket between patients is not permitted.
Respirator straps should be worn on the crown of the head (top strap) and at the base of the neck (bottom strap). Each time you put on the respirator, perform a user seal check
Mask ties should be worn at the crown of the head (top tie) and at the base of the neck (bottom tie). Wrap the loops of your mask around your ears.
- Put on a face shield or goggles. Select the suitable eye protection when wearing a N95 respirator or half facepiece elastomeric respirator to ensure that the respirator does not interfere with the correct positioning of the eye protection and make sure that the eye protection does not interfere with the respirator's fit or seal. Face shields cover the entire face. Goggles give excellent eye protection as well, but fogging is common.
- Put on your gloves. Gloves should cover the cuff of the gown (wrist).
- Healthcare staff are now permitted to enter the patient's room.
How to Remove (Doff) Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)?
There may be more than one suitable doffing procedure. It is vital to receive training and practise using your healthcare facility's method. One example of doffing is seen below.
- Remove gloves. Make certain that removing the gloves does not result in increased contamination of the hands. Gloves can be removed in a variety of ways (e.g., glove-in-glove or bird beak).
- Remove the gown. Untie all of the ties (or unsnap all buttons). Some gown ties can be broken instead of untied. Do so gently, avoiding a forceful movement. Reach up to your shoulders and pull the robe down and away from your body. Rolling the gown down is a viable option. Place in a trash receptacle.
- Healthcare professionals are now free to leave the patient room.
- Employ hand hygiene.
- Take off your face shield or goggles. Carefully remove the face shield or goggles by holding the strap and pulling up and away from the head. Do not make any contact with the face shield or goggles' front.
- Remove and discard the respirator (or facemask if used instead of respirator). Do not make any contact with the front of the respirator or facemask.
Remove the bottom strap by contacting only the strap and slowly bring it over the head. Grasp the top strap and bring it over your head carefully, then remove the respirator from your face without touching the front of the respirator.
Carefully untie (or unhook from the ears) the mask and draw away from the face without contacting the front.
- If your company practices to reuse PPE kit, wash your hands after removing the respirator or facemask and before putting it back on.
Best PPE kit in India
PPE Kit DRDO SITRA Approved
A PPE that allows you to concentrate on your task - SITRA and DRDO certified PPE Kit comprises of six items as listed below:
- Non Woven Coverall: which is SITRA approved Spun-bonded, has Non-Woven PP Fabric with tape.
It has Comfortable designs with Breathable and lightweight quality. It is 90GSM. It is Air permeable, soft, light weight, and pathogen resistant
- Non Woven Shoe Covers: It has extreme Air permeability, softness, light weight, and pathogen resistance, which is SITRA approved Spun – bonded Non-Woven PP Fabric with 90GSM (gram per square meter) size
- Nitrile Gloves / Latex Gloves. It is made from 100 percent premium Nitrile or Latex, which is Tested and manufactured in accordance with ISO 9001-2015
It is Ambidextrous, textured fingers, beaded cuffs and CE-certified
- Surgical Mask 3ply with Elastic Band. It is blue with 25 GSM first Layer, 20 GSM second Layer and 25 GSM third layer.
Filterable effectiveness of 99 percent with High-quality face mask with nose clasp and elastic ear loops for comfort wearing
- Protective Goggles or Face Shield with clear PC lens and PP Plastic layer
The wraparound design gives additional eye protection and clear vision.
It is stylish, fit, and comfortable which can be worn over power Spectacles
Indirect vents to keep eyes fresh, promote comfort, and avoid fogging
- Disposable Cover Bags which is made up of Birogradable Material
Personal Protective Equipment Kit 60-70 GSM with Safety Goggles (PPE Kit)
The following items are included in the PPE Kit:
- Overall & Shoes Cover (60-70 GSM): It is constructed of the finest mesh fabric, which is entirely anti-microbial, smooth on the skin, anti-allergy and breathable fabric, splash resistant non-woven fabric, and 99 percent bacterial filtering.
- Personal protection suits are available in a range of weights ranging from 40 to 120 GSM for workers with varying levels of infection exposure. Please consult with your institution to determine the optimal amount of protection for your specific exposure level.
- Gloves (Sterilised Latex glove in solo pair pack). It is only for single use and has been ETO sterilised. It is a pair of sterile surgical rubber gloves that are easy to put on and are gentle on the skin.
- Face Mask (3 Ply). It is Bacteria Resistant and Breathable, as well as Splash Resistant.
- Safety goggles. It shields the eyes. It also comes in a variety of sizes and is adjustable.
- It includes a Biohazard Bag for final disposal. Remove, place in a bag, make a knot, and discard